Derbent is the city in Dagestan on narrow pass between Caspian sea and foothills of Caucasus. Derbent — the most ancient city of the Russian Federation. The first settlements have arisen here during an epoch of early bronze — in the end 5.000 up to a.d ., that is five thousand years ago. The first mention of the Caspian gate — the most ancient name of Derbent — concerns to VI century up to a.d ., it is brought by known ancient greek geographer Gekatej Miletsky (VI century up to a.d).

Geographical position

The city is located on western of Caspian sea, near to a mouth of the river Samur, there where mountains of the Big Caucasus most close approach(suit) to Caspian sea, leaving only narrow three-kilometer strip of plain; closing it(her), the city formed so-called Derbentskiy or the Caspian pass. The role of Derbent and Caspian was great, it has been located in one of most strategically important and topopgraphical a convenient place of the well-known Near-Caspian way connecting the East Europe and Forward Asia.

Derbent is based(founded,established) by the Iranian tsar Iezdigerdom II (rules in 435-57) as city-fortress on northern border of the Persian possession. The fortress protected pass between the Caucasian mountains and Caspian sea, being on ways between the Europe and Forward Asia, as is reflected in the name: Iranian Derbent " mountain pass, gorge; castle, a fortress ".

In 630th Derbent have grasped by Hazars.
About 652 Derbent in structure of Arabian halifat. In city mosques were under construction, the most part of inhabitants has been turned into an islam.
In 8 century Derbent - the large military-political center of Caucasus in which there was a residence of the deputy of caliph. In 10 century, with disintegration Arabian halifat, Derbent becomes the center independent emirates.
In 1071 city Turks have grasped.
In 13 century Derbent won by Mongols, falls into decay.
In 16 - the beginning 18 centuries Derbent - in structure of Iran.
In 1722 it is attached to Russia.
In 1735 again has departed to Iran.
In 1796 it is borrowed(occupied) by Russian armies,
In 1813 it is finally attached to Russian empire.
About 1840 Derbent - district, with 1846.
Since 1840th experienced the fast economic rise connected, in particular, with cultivation Marens - plants from which received cheap dye. In 19 century gardening, wine growing and fishing have been developed also.
In 1898 through Derbent there has passed(there has taken place) the railway.

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