Mahachkala (Makhachkala)

Mahachkala — city in Russia, capital of Dagestan. The population of city — 466,3 thousand person. (2006), agglomerations — 760 thousand person. (2005).

Mahachkala is located on western Caspian sea, on a narrow strip of Seaside lowland, at bottom of mountain Tarkitau, near foothills of the Big Caucasus, in 2166 km from Moscow.

The chapter(head) of administration of city — Said Dzhaparovich Amirov.


The settlement has been based(founded,established) in 1844 as Russian military strengthening Peter which among mountaineers was known under name Anji-Kala (an earthen fortress). In 1857 settlement has received the status of city and the name Port which has been connected with a legend that during the Persian campaign 1722 in this place camp of an army of Peter I. In 1870 the artificial harbour and port has been constructed. After connection of city by railways with Vladikavkaz and Baku (1894-96) turnover of goods of port has considerably increased.

In the end XIX — the beginning of XX centuries in port have been constructed oil refining and underwater factories, making paper and tobacco factories, railway workshops.

In 1921 city has received a modern name Mahachkala in honour of Dagestan revolutionary Makhacha Dakhadaeva (1882—1918). The name is formed as a result of merge of words «Mahach» and «Kala» (« city, a fortress »).

With 1921 on 1990 Mahachkala was capital Dagestan ????, then republics Dagestans. Mahachkala has strongly suffered during earthquake on May, 14th 1970.


Mechanical engineering and metal working: manufacture the equipment, separators, multiple dredges, devices, the equipment for the food-processing industry, etc.

Chemical and light industry (including fish, canning, wine). Manufacture of building materials: fiber glass, a silicate brick, ferro-concrete designs.

The trading port of Mahachkala carries out cargoes, basically the mineral oil acting from Baku, Krasnovodsk, Astrakhan, etc.

Architecture, sights

In 5-6 km from Mahachkala, on mountain Tarkitau, — settlement Tarki on which place, under the legend, in VII-X centuries existed Caspisian the city of Semender, approximately up to 723 was capital Khazarskogo Jamaat, then — aul Tarkş with 3 mosques, above there was a fortress Rough (1821; the observation post strengthened by a stone laying) was kept.

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